Open Access Policy

Open Access grants an immediate, free, and online availability of research articles. It allows users to use these articles fully in the digital environment with the rights. This journal uses Open Journal Systems by the Public Knowledge Project under the GNU General Public License. It is an open-source journal management and publishing software developed, supported, and freely distributed. Click here to learn more about the software (, or please contact the journal directly with questions about the journal and submissions to the journal.

Why Open Access?

  • Accelerated discovery. With open access, researchers can read and build on the findings of others without restriction.
  • Public enrichment. Much scientific and medical research is paid for with public funds. Open Access allows taxpayers to see the results of their investment.
  • Improved education. Open Access means teachers and students can access the latest research findings worldwide.

We engage and invest in research to accelerate scientific discovery, encourage innovation, enrich education, and stimulate the economy – to improve the public good. Communication of research results is an essential component of the research process; research can only advance by sharing the results, and the value of an investment in research is only maximized through the wide use of its effects.

Often, research results are unavailable to the full community of potential users because of cost barriers or use restrictions. The Internet allows us to bring this crucial information to a worldwide audience at virtually no marginal cost and enable us to use it in new, innovative ways. This has resulted in a call for a new framework to allow research results to be more easily accessed and used— the call for Open Access.

Click here to learn who benefits from Open Access, including researchers, educational institutions, students, businesses, the public, and more. (

How Does Open Access Work?

SPARC considers the terms outlined by the Creative Common's Attribution-Only license (CC-BY) the standard terms for Open Access.

Four primary mechanisms can be used to enable Open Access:

  1. Open Access Publishing

Authors can publish their research articles in many journals that meet the full definition of Open Access. Articles are free to all interested readers, and the publishers place no financial or copyright barriers between the readers and the paper. Open Access publishing is the fastest-growing segment of the scholarly publishing market, and journal options are now available for nearly every area of research. 

  1. Digital Repositories

Authors can deposit their research articles in digital archives (often called Digital Repositories or Institutional Repositories). The system conforms to the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) standards and enables readers to access and fully reuse the article text freely. It allows any author to make their work available under Open Access conditions regardless of the journal in which the article is published. 

  1. Effectively Managed Author Rights

As the authors of a research paper, you can ensure that your article can be accessed and used by the widest possible audience. Tools such as Addenda to traditional Copyright Transfer Forms are readily available, proven resources that can help you understand open licenses and to publish your articles under full Open Access conditions.

  1. Local, National and International Open Access Policies

Institutions that support research, from public and private research funders to higher education institutions, can implement effective policies that support making Open Access to scholarly research articles the default mode for their researchers.

Why Should You Care About Open Access?

Over the past decade, Open Access has become central to advancing the interests of researchers, scholars, students, businesses, and the public - as well as librarians. The digital environment poses new challenges and provides unique opportunities to share, review, and publish research results. Ensuring broad, unfettered access to the knowledge contained in primary research articles and the rights to use these articles fully will play a key role in seeing that the scholarly communication system evolves to support the needs of scholars and the academic enterprise as a whole.

Increasingly, institutions that support research – from public and private research funders to higher education institutions – are implementing policies that require researchers to make articles that report on studies generated from their funding openly accessible to and fully useable by the public.